### Question 45. What is the Factoring Problem?

*Factoring* is the act of splitting an integer into a set of smaller
integers (factors) which, when multiplied together, form the original integer.
For example, the factors of 15 are 3 and 5; the factoring problem is to
find 3 and 5 when given 15. Prime factorization requires splitting an integer
into factors that are prime numbers; every integer has a unique prime factorization.
Multiplying two prime integers together is easy, but as far as we know,
factoring the product is much more difficult.